Human activity has caused environmental transformations for millennia, most often driven by the desire to acquire natural resources. Unfortunately, the desire to acquire these resources in many cases results in a reduction in biodiversity, that is, a reduction in genetic diversity in a given area. In addition, the transformation of the environment results in the replacement of plant species that originally existed in a given area by other vegetation, including foreign ones. Environmental transformation can take various forms, such as agricultural intensification, the acquisition of new mining areas, or simply the occupation of more land for municipal or industrial purposes. Nor can we forget one of the most important problems of recent decades: global warming, which contributes significantly to climate change and leads to the disappearance of many plant species. The way to reduce the negative human impact is to carry out environmental protection activities, both passive and active. In this paper, we take a closer look at how in vitro cultures of plants can benefit biodiversity conservation thanks to the possibility of micropropagation and long-term storage of plants.